Vaccines: The End of Illness Overview

Vaccines: The End of Illness Overview



Published Date

1st Nov 2014



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Vaccines: The End of Illness Executive Summary
Vaccines are probably the most effective discovery in the history of medical science. Their low cost, extended protection and the impossibility of their circumvention through development of resistance on the part of the target pathogen render them unmatched as a tool of efficient healthcare.

Vaccines are also one of the oldest medical devices, with a history going back at least a thousand years. Modern vaccine advances date from the 19th century. Today vaccine technology is undergoing a fundamental revolution, taking advantage of the profound understanding of the immune system, and its ability to mount protective antibody production and cell-based responses to foreign antigens.

In the latter part of the 20th century, vaccines endured a rollback in which concern over legal challenges and negative publicity over real and imagined side effects of vaccination. Protective legislation passed by congress in the 1980s combined with improvements in vaccine technology have driven a resurgence in its public acceptance.

This report profiles some of the major pharma companies involved in vaccine R&D and a number of biotech companies developing new vaccine products and technologies.

The logistics and management of the vaccine industry is more and more based on partnerships between the private sector (pharma and biotech companies), government agencies (WHO) and large non-profits (such as the Gates Foundation). This relationship will grow and expand in the foreseeable future.

The report concludes with an assessment of the future directions of vaccines as innovative medical therapies for a wide range of diseases. In addition it explores conditions not normally thought to be in purview of vaccination, including substance abuse and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Since the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001, the federal government has committed substantial resources to investigating biological warfare agents and treatments for such weapons. However data available in the public sphere suggests that the risk that these agents would be employed in a meaningful way is slight, and may drain resources from much more likely challenges, such as flu pandemics.

The long range outlook for vaccines is bright. Traditional vaccines worked through stimulation of the humoral arm of the immune system, and so were limited in their effectiveness for the treatment of cell-based diseases. New technologies and an expanded understanding of the basic science of cellular immunity are opening innovative pathways to the engineering of more effective vaccines.

A final chapter presents results of a survey of industry experts concerning the political economic and technological future of vaccine technology.
Vaccines: The End of Illness Table of Contents
Executive Summary

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 The History of Vaccination

1.1.1 Ancient

1.1.2. 18th century

1.1.3. 19th century Pasteur Coley’s toxins

1.1.4. Mid 20th century

1.2. Vaccines in the Doldrums: late 20th century

1.2.1. Liability issues

1.2.2. Vaccine denialism

1.3. The Current State of Vaccine technology, 2013

1.3.1. WHO

1.3.2. Behemoth players: Bill and Melinda Gates

1.3.3. Big pharma jumps in

Chapter 2: A Cornucopia of Vaccine Technologies

2.1. Vaccine production: eggs versus cell culture

2.2. Cell line options

2.3 Conventional Vaccines

2.4. Adjuvants

2.5. Nanoparticle-based vaccines

2.6. DNA Vaccines

2.7. Vaccines driving T-cell activation

2.8. Dendritic cells

Chapter 3: Vaccine Targets

3.1. Infectious Diseases

3.1.1. Influenza

3.1.2. HSV A & B

3.1.3. C. difficile

3.1.4. HIV

3.1.5. Pneumococcus

3.1.6. Typhoid

3.1.7. Candida

3.1.8. Rabies

3.1.9. Rotavirus

3.1.10. Polio

3.1.11. Malaria

3.1.12. Parasitic diseases

3.1.13. Smallpox

3.1.14. Cholera

3.1.15. Mumps

3.1.16. Diphtheria

3.2. Cancer vaccines

3.2.1. Human papilloma virus

3.2.2. Breast cancer

3.2.3. Pancreatic cancer

3.2.4. Renal cell carcinoma

3.2.5. Melanoma: dendritic cells

3.2.6. Prostate cancer

Chapter 4: Big Pharma Vaccines

4.1. AstraZeneca (Medimmune)

4.2. Baxter

4.3. GSK

4.4. J&J (Crucel)

4.5. Merck

4.6. Novartis

4.7. Pfizer

4.8. Sanofi

Chapter 5: Small Pharma Vaccines

5.1. AC Immune

5.2. Aeras

5.3. Alphavax

5.4. Astrellas

5.6. Bavarian Nordic

5.7. BiondVax Pharmaceuticals

5.8. Braasch Biotech LLC

5.9. Celldex

5.10. Chrontech

5.11. Emergent Biosolutions

5.12. EpiVax

5.13. GenVec

5.14. GeoVax

5.15. Genocea Biosciences

5.16. Immune Targeting Systems

5.17. Indian Immunologicals Limited

5.18. Inovio

5.19. Inviragen

5.20. Juvaris Biotherapeutics

5.21. Medicago

5.22. Mymetics

5.23. NovaRx

5.24. Novavax

5.25. Nuron

5.26. OPKO

5.27. Profectus Bioscience Inc

5.28. Sinovac

5.29. Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc.

5.30. TapImmune

5.31. Valneva

5.32. VaxInnate

5.33. VaxLiant

5.34. VBI vaccines

5.35. Vical

Chapter 6: Regulatory Issues

6.1. A bumpy road

6.2. Current regulatory status

Chapter 7:The Future of Vaccine technology

7.1. Challenges in delivery and storage

7.2. Dry vaccine technology: Ready for prime time?

7.3. A universal Vaccine

7.4. Outlandish targets

7.4.1. Drug abuse

7.4.2. Obesity

7.4.3. Smoking

7.4.4. Alcoholism

7.4.5. Alzheimer’s disease

7.4.6. Parkinson’s Disease

7.5. Bioterrorism: A global threat?

7.6. Intellectual Property in the Balance

7.7. A bright future for Vaccines

Chapter 8: Survey of Opinion Concerning Vaccine technology by Members of the Industry
Vaccines: The End of Illness Tables and Figures


Table 2.2: Anti-Viral Vero Cell-Based Vaccines


Figure 1.1: Overall Decline in Worldwide Death Rates
Figure 2.5: Application of Nano-Sized Delivery Systems
Figure 5.11: Emergent’s ADAPTIR Design Technology for Antibody Therapeutics
Figure 5.15: Genocea Technology for Screening Candidate Vaccines Components
Figure 6.2: Development of Anti-cancer Vaccine Products and the Regulatory Guidance Throughout the Process
Figure 8.1: Makeup of the Participants in the Survey
Figure 8.2: Breakdown of Opinions of the Industrial Commitment of Resources
Figure 8.3: How Should the Industry Focus its R&D Efforts in Vaccine Technology?
Figure 8.4: What are the Most Promising Cancer Vaccine Targets?
Figure 8.5: How Seriously are the Federal Governmental Bodies Committed to Vaccine Technology?
Figure 8.6: State and Local Governmental Support for R&D. How Does it Stack Up?
Figure 8.7: The Softest Cancer Vaccine Target
Figure 8.8: Where is the Vaccine Market Headed?
Figure 8.9: Why Would a Vaccine Development Program be Vetoed?
Figure 8.10: The Fallout from Vaccine Denialism
Figure 8.11: Where is Bioprocessing of Vaccines Headed?
Figure 8.12: Cancer Vaccines: Still a Long Ways Off
Figure 8.13: AIDS Vaccines: Further Down the Road than Cancer Vaccines?
Figure 8.14: The Road Ahead: Daunting Challenges
Figure 8.15: Is Regulatory Control of Vaccines a Problem?
Figure 8.16: How Does the Industry Feel About Vaccines as a Barrier to Terroristic Threats?
Figure 8.17: When Vaccines Fail
Figure 8.18: Bioinformatics: A Pathway to Innovative Vaccine Antigens
Figure 8.19: Counteracting Vaccine Denialism
Figure 8.20: Opinions on the Rise of Therapeutic Vaccines
Figure 8.21: The Future of Oral Vaccines
Figure 8.22: Vaccine Technology in the Third World
Figure 8.23: Vaccines and the Battle Against Hepatitis C
Figure 8.24: Academic/Industrial Partnerships: Do They Have a Future?
Figure 8.25: Alternative Pathways Toward Speeding Vaccine Development
Figure 8.26: A New Look at DNA Vaccines

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